Median Age by Country in 2035

In the year 2035, the world is projected to have a median age of 33.07 years.

The country with the highest median age is projected to be ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ญSaint Helena where the median is 53.08 years. Closely followed by ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ตJapan with a median age of 52.48 years, and ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐChina, Hong Kong SAR with 51.91.

The country with the lowest median age for the year is projected to be ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ชNiger where the median is 15.42 years. Followed by ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซCentral African Republic with a median age of 16.24, and ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉDemocratic Republic of the Congo with 16.64 years.

The geographic region with the highest median age is projected to be Europe with a median of 45.64 years. Closely followed by Northern America with a median age of 40.97 years, and Asia with 35.85 years of median age.

When devided into sub-subregions we can see that Southern Europe had the highest median age of 49.62 years. Closely followed by Eastern Asia with a median age of 45.87 years, and Western Europe with 45.53 years of median age.

If we devide the global population into income groups we can see that High-income countries has the highest median age of 44.12 years. While the lowest median age is recorded by Low-income countries with a median age of only 19.89.

Countries with the Highest Median Age in 2035

Rank Country Median Age (Years)
1 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ญSaint Helena 53.0789
2 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ตJapan 52.4839
3 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐChina, Hong Kong SAR 51.9114
4 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฒSan Marino 51.7189
5 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡นItaly 51.5155
6 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ทRepublic of Korea 51.0522
7 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒBermuda 50.8375
8 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธSpain 49.9295
9 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฉAndorra 49.5378
10 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ทGreece 49.4772
11 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡นPortugal 49.363
12 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผChina, Taiwan Province of China 48.5706
13 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌSingapore 48.3681
14 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌBulgaria 48.2569
15 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จMonaco 48.1741
16 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎSlovenia 47.9636
17 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฒSaint Pierre and Miquelon 47.9069
18 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆUkraine 47.5658
19 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ทCroatia 47.3832
20 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ผKuwait 47.3681
21 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎLiechtenstein 47.1914
22 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆHoly See 47.1483
23 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ปLatvia 46.9357
24 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ชGermany 46.8783
25 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฒIsle of Man 46.8672
26 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธSerbia 46.845
27 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฑSaint Barthรฉlemy 46.8068
28 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡นLithuania 46.5607
29 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ถMartinique 46.4775
30 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ทPuerto Rico 46.4389
31 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡นAustria 46.225
32 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑPoland 46.1759
33 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆBosnia and Herzegovina 46.0831
34 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡นMalta 45.8008
35 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ชEstonia 45.7722
36 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ผAruba 45.6746
37 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญSwitzerland 45.5219
38 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณChina 45.419
39 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐSlovakia 45.3894
40 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญThailand 45.3758
41 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฐFalkland Islands (Malvinas) 45.3199
42 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎAnguilla 45.2803
43 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พBelarus 45.2449
44 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บCuba 45.1478
45 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎFinland 45.1228
46 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ดRomania 44.9954
47 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฎGibraltar 44.9189
48 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บHungary 44.9169
49 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟCzechia 44.6269
50 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ดChina, Macao SAR 44.5917
51 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ทFrance 44.4118
52 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พCyprus 44.3788
53 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฎUnited States Virgin Islands 44.3326
54 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ธMontserrat 44.2296
55 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พCayman Islands 44.1593
56 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บRussian Federation 44.0672
57 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐNorth Macedonia 43.8234
58 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ชBelgium 43.8029
59 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ถBonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 43.776
60 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฌBritish Virgin Islands 43.7643
61 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑNetherlands 43.7587
62 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บLuxembourg 43.1344
63 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฌGuernsey 43.0798
64 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆCanada 42.9888
65 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ชJersey 42.913
66 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑAlbania 42.8063
67 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡งUnited Kingdom 42.7613
68 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡งBarbados 42.6523
69 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ซSaint Martin (French part) 42.6416
70 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ดNorway 42.4484
71 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ชSweden 42.2892
72 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡จTurks and Caicos Islands 41.9918
73 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐDenmark 41.8212
74 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ชMontenegro 41.7034
75 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡นTrinidad and Tobago 41.5835
76 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑChile 41.5223
77 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บMauritius 41.3772
78 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ปMaldives 41.2959
79 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒArmenia 41.2608
80 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ชIreland 41.1379
81 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธIceland 41.1204
82 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บAustralia 40.8899
83 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธUnited States of America 40.7221
84 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟNew Zealand 40.6949
85 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌAntigua and Barbuda 40.4561
86 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ตGuadeloupe 39.989
87 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ชGeorgia 39.6857
88 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จSaint Lucia 39.6353
89 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ตDem. People's Republic of Korea 39.6159
90 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉRepublic of Moldova 39.5648
91 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พUruguay 39.5627
92 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ซFrench Polynesia 39.3912
93 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ทCosta Rica 39.3799
94 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผCuraรงao 39.334
95 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ตNorthern Mariana Islands 39.0784
96 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ทIran (Islamic Republic of) 39.0474
97 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ณSaint Kitts and Nevis 38.8596
98 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฝSint Maarten (Dutch part) 38.8212
99 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฑGreenland 38.6508
100 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ทBrazil 38.4728
101 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒJamaica 38.4509
102 ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ซWallis and Futuna Islands 38.3429
103 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธBahamas 37.9215
104 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟAzerbaijan 37.8973
105 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฒDominica 37.7808
106 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ณBrunei Darussalam 37.5362
107 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ดColombia 37.3951
108 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณViet Nam 37.3491
109 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จSeychelles 37.2005
110 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จNew Caledonia 37.172
111 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡จSaint Vincent and the Grenadines 36.9215
112 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ทTรผrkiye 36.7679
113 ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ฐKosovo (under UNSC res. 1244) 36.7145
114 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ดFaroe Islands 36.5275
115 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณTunisia 36.0986
116 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐSri Lanka 36.0405
117 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ชRรฉunion 35.8803
118 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡นBhutan 35.8529
119 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ผPalau 35.7193
120 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ทArgentina 35.6141
121 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พMalaysia 35.5913
122 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฉGrenada 35.4393
123 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ชUnited Arab Emirates 34.9841
124 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆSaudi Arabia 34.8276
125 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญBahrain 34.8232
126 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝMexico 34.8125
127 ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฆQatar 34.7668
128 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฐCook Islands 34.5585
129 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ญWestern Sahara 34.2256
130 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จEcuador 33.1326
131 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ปCabo Verde 32.9571
132 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉIndonesia 32.9432
133 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ปEl Salvador 32.8947
134 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒMyanmar 32.8676
135 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณIndia 32.763
136 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆPanama 32.6983
137 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡งLebanon 32.6686
138 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆMorocco 32.5275
139 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ชPeru 32.4982
140 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บGuam 32.4319
141 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉBangladesh 32.1433
142 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธAmerican Samoa 32.0934
143 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ดDominican Republic 31.6957
144 ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒOman 31.2761
145 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ทSuriname 31.1631
146 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟBelize 30.9891
147 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พLibya 30.7381
148 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡บNiue 30.7301
149 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ชVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 30.6869
150 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑIsrael 30.4451
151 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟAlgeria 30.2321
152 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญCambodia 29.929
153 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พParaguay 29.6232
154 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆSouth Africa 29.603
155 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎNicaragua 29.4618
156 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ตNepal 29.33
157 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พGuyana 29.3162
158 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏFiji 29.0993
159 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฐTokelau 28.932
160 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณHonduras 28.7948
161 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟUzbekistan 28.6289
162 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒTurkmenistan 28.3042
163 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆLao People's Democratic Republic 28.2578
164 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณMongolia 28.1805
165 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟKazakhstan 28.0998
166 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญPhilippines 28.0164
167 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏDjibouti 27.8456
168 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พSyrian Arab Republic 27.7559
169 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ดJordan 27.7495
170 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ดBolivia (Plurinational State of) 27.6349
171 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฒMicronesia (Fed. States of) 27.5054
172 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡นGuatemala 27.4988
173 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ญMarshall Islands 27.2843
174 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผBotswana 26.7514
175 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡นHaiti 26.5141
176 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌEgypt 26.3464
177 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ซFrench Guiana 26.3139
178 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฌKyrgyzstan 25.2658
179 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌPapua New Guinea 25.0868
180 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ปTuvalu 25.0401
181 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฑTimor-Leste 24.8301
182 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟEswatini 24.5893
183 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ดTonga 24.1461
184 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธLesotho 23.9844
185 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏTajikistan 23.8294
186 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฎKiribati 23.6636
187 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆGabon 23.602
188 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐPakistan 23.5612
189 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญGhana 23.347
190 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถIraq 23.1592
191 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒComoros 23.1083
192 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆNamibia 23.0013
193 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธState of Palestine 22.8219
194 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ชKenya 22.821
195 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ถEquatorial Guinea 22.6556
196 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑSierra Leone 22.3869
197 ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ชYemen 22.1822
198 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผRwanda 22.1424
199 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ทEritrea 21.9647
200 ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ธSamoa 21.9449
201 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡บVanuatu 21.8464
202 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌMadagascar 21.7081
203 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผGuinea-Bissau 21.6561
204 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡นSao Tome and Principe 21.464
205 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡นEthiopia 21.4455
206 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡งSolomon Islands 21.4419
207 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ทNauru 21.3454
208 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ผZimbabwe 21.2601
209 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ทLiberia 21.1332
210 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌCongo 20.9754
211 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธSouth Sudan 20.9522
212 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌTogo 20.9035
213 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ทMauritania 20.6231
214 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณGuinea 20.5276
215 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉSudan 20.4991
216 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณSenegal 20.3872
217 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒGambia 20.2834
218 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผMalawi 20.164
219 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎCรดte d'Ivoire 20.0482
220 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒZambia 19.8322
221 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒCameroon 19.7734
222 ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡นMayotte 19.7695
223 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎBurundi 19.5513
224 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซBurkina Faso 19.5203
225 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซAfghanistan 19.4893
226 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏBenin 19.25
227 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌNigeria 19.1235
228 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟMozambique 19.0221
229 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌUganda 18.9935
230 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟUnited Republic of Tanzania 18.8877
231 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ดAngola 18.1408
232 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑMali 16.8948
233 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ดSomalia 16.8073
234 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉChad 16.6692
235 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉDemocratic Republic of the Congo 16.6449
236 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซCentral African Republic 16.2406
237 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ชNiger 15.4186

Regions with the Highest Median Age in 2035

Rank Region Median Age (years)
1 Europe 45.6417
2 Northern America 40.9745
3 Asia 35.853
4 Oceania 35.6402
5 Latin America and the Caribbean 35.4455
6 Africa 20.8451

Sub-regions with the Highest Median Age in 2035

Rank Sub-region Median Age (years)
1 Southern Europe 49.6238
2 Eastern Asia 45.8749
3 Western Europe 45.5294
4 Eastern Europe 45.0286
5 Northern Europe 42.8758
6 Australia/New Zealand 40.8595
7 South America 36.4194
8 Caribbean 35.1222
9 South-Eastern Asia 33.8112
10 Central America 33.282
11 Southern Asia 31.2332
12 Western Asia 30.02
13 Polynesia 29.6946
14 Southern Africa 28.8628
15 Micronesia 28.6129
16 Central Asia 27.3964
17 Northern Africa 26.7531
18 Melanesia 25.2079
19 Eastern Africa 20.4533
20 Western Africa 19.3396
21 Middle Africa 17.5369

Income Groups with the Highest Median Age in 2035

Rank Income Group Median Age (years)
1 High-income countries 44.1177
2 Upper-middle-income countries 41.5919
3 Middle-income countries 33.5508
4 No income group available 30.7731
5 Lower-middle-income countries 29.1279
6 Low-income countries 19.8883

Data Information

Data found on this page is based on the medium fertility variant of the United Nations Revision of World Population Prospects 2022.

Data Sources

The United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Population Division)

UN Revision of World Population Prospects 2022

Data Disclaimer

People at database.earth has not verified data entry and collection processes in person. We take all open data provided by governmental and non-governmental organization at face value.

This data is the foundation for most content and visualization found on this page. If you find errors in the representation of the data, please contact us and we will correct it.

All data from sources are archived for future reference.