Median Age by Country in 2040

In the year 2040, the world is projected to have a median age of 33.99 years.

The country with the highest median age is projected to be ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐChina, Hong Kong SAR where the median is 54.32 years. Closely followed by ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ทRepublic of Korea with a median age of 53.15 years, and ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ตJapan with 53.05.

The country with the lowest median age for the year is projected to be ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ชNiger where the median is 16.04 years. Followed by ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซCentral African Republic with a median age of 17.10, and ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉDemocratic Republic of the Congo with 17.43 years.

The geographic region with the highest median age is projected to be Europe with a median of 46.75 years. Closely followed by Northern America with a median age of 41.78 years, and Asia with 37.23 years of median age.

When devided into sub-subregions we can see that Southern Europe had the highest median age of 50.69 years. Closely followed by Eastern Asia with a median age of 48.31 years, and Western Europe with 46.49 years of median age.

If we devide the global population into income groups we can see that High-income countries has the highest median age of 45.10 years. While the lowest median age is recorded by Low-income countries with a median age of only 20.84.

Countries with the Highest Median Age in 2040

Rank Country Median Age (Years)
1 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐChina, Hong Kong SAR 54.3242
2 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ทRepublic of Korea 53.1496
3 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ตJapan 53.0487
4 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡นItaly 52.3652
5 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฒSan Marino 52.3058
6 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ญSaint Helena 52.1207
7 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒBermuda 51.977
8 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฉAndorra 51.3103
9 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธSpain 51.227
10 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผChina, Taiwan Province of China 50.558
11 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌSingapore 50.2699
12 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ทGreece 50.1043
13 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฑSaint Barthรฉlemy 50.0214
14 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡นPortugal 49.9609
15 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌBulgaria 49.6429
16 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆUkraine 49.2711
17 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎSlovenia 49.0512
18 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฒSaint Pierre and Miquelon 48.9125
19 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡นMalta 48.6086
20 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ทCroatia 48.4099
21 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธSerbia 48.182
22 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ผKuwait 48.1743
23 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎLiechtenstein 48.0765
24 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ชGermany 48.052
25 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ทPuerto Rico 48.0312
26 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ปLatvia 47.9915
27 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณChina 47.9852
28 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑPoland 47.9623
29 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡นLithuania 47.7612
30 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎAnguilla 47.7224
31 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡นAustria 47.602
32 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆBosnia and Herzegovina 47.4159
33 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญThailand 47.3056
34 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ชEstonia 47.2816
35 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฐFalkland Islands (Malvinas) 47.2103
36 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐSlovakia 47.0644
37 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ดChina, Macao SAR 46.9824
38 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฒIsle of Man 46.9595
39 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บCuba 46.8354
40 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ผAruba 46.799
41 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญSwitzerland 46.7308
42 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พCyprus 46.453
43 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆHoly See 46.3172
44 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พBelarus 46.3056
45 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พCayman Islands 46.2572
46 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บHungary 46.0139
47 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎFinland 46.0035
48 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จMonaco 45.9216
49 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฎGibraltar 45.8773
50 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ดRomania 45.7193
51 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐNorth Macedonia 45.6438
52 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ถMartinique 45.4519
53 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑAlbania 45.2809
54 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ทFrance 45.0729
55 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฌBritish Virgin Islands 45.0317
56 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ถBonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 45.0
57 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บRussian Federation 44.8656
58 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ชBelgium 44.7904
59 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฌGuernsey 44.7163
60 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บLuxembourg 44.687
61 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑNetherlands 44.6687
62 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟCzechia 44.4433
63 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ปMaldives 44.4244
64 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ธMontserrat 44.3278
65 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ชJersey 44.1668
66 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฎUnited States Virgin Islands 44.0489
67 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆCanada 43.923
68 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡งUnited Kingdom 43.7667
69 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑChile 43.6293
70 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡งBarbados 43.5841
71 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ดNorway 43.3494
72 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ชSweden 43.197
73 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡จTurks and Caicos Islands 43.146
74 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บMauritius 43.0678
75 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธIceland 42.9485
76 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒArmenia 42.9067
77 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡นTrinidad and Tobago 42.8556
78 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ซSaint Martin (French part) 42.8403
79 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ชMontenegro 42.8316
80 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐDenmark 42.6723
81 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌAntigua and Barbuda 42.5246
82 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บAustralia 42.149
83 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จSaint Lucia 42.0112
84 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟNew Zealand 41.9948
85 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ชIreland 41.7214
86 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธUnited States of America 41.5035
87 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ทCosta Rica 41.4908
88 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พUruguay 41.3197
89 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฝSint Maarten (Dutch part) 41.2229
90 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒJamaica 41.1345
91 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ตDem. People's Republic of Korea 41.0748
92 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ซFrench Polynesia 41.0422
93 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผCuraรงao 40.9433
94 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ตGuadeloupe 40.9361
95 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ทIran (Islamic Republic of) 40.4673
96 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ทBrazil 40.3849
97 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ณSaint Kitts and Nevis 40.3595
98 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉRepublic of Moldova 40.2765
99 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ตNorthern Mariana Islands 40.1376
100 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฒDominica 39.9198
101 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ชGeorgia 39.8311
102 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธBahamas 39.765
103 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฑGreenland 39.5757
104 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ดColombia 39.5711
105 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ณBrunei Darussalam 39.2295
106 ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ฐKosovo (under UNSC res. 1244) 39.0091
107 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟAzerbaijan 38.9314
108 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณViet Nam 38.611
109 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ทTรผrkiye 38.5335
110 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡นBhutan 38.3377
111 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จNew Caledonia 38.3286
112 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡จSaint Vincent and the Grenadines 38.2888
113 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จSeychelles 37.7717
114 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พMalaysia 37.429
115 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐSri Lanka 37.2467
116 ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ซWallis and Futuna Islands 37.2296
117 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ชRรฉunion 37.1218
118 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ทArgentina 37.0512
119 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณTunisia 36.9209
120 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝMexico 36.8264
121 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฉGrenada 36.5139
122 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ดFaroe Islands 36.4578
123 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆSaudi Arabia 36.1561
124 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ผPalau 35.6941
125 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ญWestern Sahara 35.181
126 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฐCook Islands 35.1471
127 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ปEl Salvador 35.0584
128 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จEcuador 34.9987
129 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ปCabo Verde 34.9721
130 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ชUnited Arab Emirates 34.9685
131 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญBahrain 34.932
132 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณIndia 34.6301
133 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉBangladesh 34.393
134 ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฆQatar 34.1851
135 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒMyanmar 34.1651
136 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆPanama 34.0786
137 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉIndonesia 34.0407
138 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ชPeru 34.0358
139 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆMorocco 33.7731
140 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บGuam 33.2787
141 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ดDominican Republic 33.2155
142 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟBelize 32.9582
143 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡งLebanon 32.8771
144 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธAmerican Samoa 32.533
145 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พLibya 32.5325
146 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ชVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 32.474
147 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ทSuriname 32.4415
148 ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒOman 31.7767
149 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟAlgeria 31.3623
150 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญCambodia 31.3258
151 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ตNepal 31.289
152 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡บNiue 31.193
153 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎNicaragua 31.1583
154 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑIsrael 31.0912
155 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พParaguay 30.9054
156 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฐTokelau 30.7637
157 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆSouth Africa 30.6986
158 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณHonduras 30.6279
159 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พGuyana 30.5608
160 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏFiji 30.1829
161 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พSyrian Arab Republic 29.9122
162 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆLao People's Democratic Republic 29.8718
163 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ดJordan 29.5412
164 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟUzbekistan 29.4492
165 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡นGuatemala 29.3874
166 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณMongolia 29.3292
167 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญPhilippines 29.3158
168 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒTurkmenistan 29.207
169 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏDjibouti 29.1568
170 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ดBolivia (Plurinational State of) 29.0178
171 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฒMicronesia (Fed. States of) 28.9547
172 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ญMarshall Islands 28.7645
173 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟKazakhstan 28.6396
174 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผBotswana 28.1438
175 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡นHaiti 27.8246
176 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌEgypt 27.4569
177 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ซFrench Guiana 26.9568
178 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฌKyrgyzstan 26.5399
179 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฑTimor-Leste 26.4418
180 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌPapua New Guinea 26.2969
181 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟEswatini 26.0605
182 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ปTuvalu 25.6981
183 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ดTonga 25.2658
184 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏTajikistan 25.0601
185 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฎKiribati 24.9996
186 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธLesotho 24.9432
187 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐPakistan 24.8611
188 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆGabon 24.8415
189 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถIraq 24.6326
190 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญGhana 24.5899
191 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒComoros 24.4804
192 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธState of Palestine 24.3826
193 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆNamibia 24.1814
194 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ชKenya 23.9714
195 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ถEquatorial Guinea 23.9089
196 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑSierra Leone 23.7835
197 ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ชYemen 23.6952
198 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผRwanda 23.251
199 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ทEritrea 23.1477
200 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡บVanuatu 23.0185
201 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผGuinea-Bissau 22.9836
202 ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ธSamoa 22.9443
203 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌMadagascar 22.7163
204 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡นEthiopia 22.609
205 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡นSao Tome and Principe 22.577
206 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธSouth Sudan 22.5568
207 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ทNauru 22.5442
208 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ผZimbabwe 22.5291
209 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡งSolomon Islands 22.507
210 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ทLiberia 22.2237
211 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌCongo 21.9779
212 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณGuinea 21.8116
213 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌTogo 21.73
214 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒGambia 21.6618
215 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉSudan 21.5875
216 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ทMauritania 21.5768
217 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณSenegal 21.3877
218 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผMalawi 21.2818
219 ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡นMayotte 21.2173
220 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎCรดte d'Ivoire 20.8918
221 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒZambia 20.8841
222 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒCameroon 20.8383
223 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซAfghanistan 20.8281
224 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎBurundi 20.7607
225 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซBurkina Faso 20.6969
226 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌUganda 20.3591
227 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏBenin 20.2078
228 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌNigeria 20.0889
229 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟMozambique 20.0727
230 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟUnited Republic of Tanzania 19.8983
231 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ดAngola 19.1146
232 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑMali 17.7513
233 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ดSomalia 17.7402
234 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉChad 17.4964
235 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉDemocratic Republic of the Congo 17.4276
236 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซCentral African Republic 17.0967
237 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ชNiger 16.0413

Regions with the Highest Median Age in 2040

Rank Region Median Age (years)
1 Europe 46.7537
2 Northern America 41.7833
3 Asia 37.225
4 Latin America and the Caribbean 37.2026
5 Oceania 36.4933
6 Africa 21.8417

Sub-regions with the Highest Median Age in 2040

Rank Sub-region Median Age (years)
1 Southern Europe 50.6884
2 Eastern Asia 48.3082
3 Western Europe 46.4937
4 Eastern Europe 46.2155
5 Northern Europe 43.8148
6 Australia/New Zealand 42.1252
7 South America 38.145
8 Caribbean 36.4518
9 Central America 35.2492
10 South-Eastern Asia 34.9999
11 Southern Asia 32.9011
12 Western Asia 31.2574
13 Polynesia 30.7405
14 Southern Africa 30.0075
15 Micronesia 29.6332
16 Central Asia 28.2568
17 Northern Africa 27.8934
18 Melanesia 26.3755
19 Eastern Africa 21.5606
20 Western Africa 20.2651
21 Middle Africa 18.3769

Income Groups with the Highest Median Age in 2040

Rank Income Group Median Age (years)
1 High-income countries 45.1011
2 Upper-middle-income countries 43.1484
3 Middle-income countries 34.7155
4 No income group available 32.5439
5 Lower-middle-income countries 30.3839
6 Low-income countries 20.8383

Data Information

Data found on this page is based on the medium fertility variant of the United Nations Revision of World Population Prospects 2022.

Data Sources

The United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Population Division)

UN Revision of World Population Prospects 2022

Data Disclaimer

People at database.earth has not verified data entry and collection processes in person. We take all open data provided by governmental and non-governmental organization at face value.

This data is the foundation for most content and visualization found on this page. If you find errors in the representation of the data, please contact us and we will correct it.

All data from sources are archived for future reference.