Median Age by Country in 2085

In the year 2085, the world is projected to have a median age of 40.55 years.

The country with the highest median age is projected to be ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ทPuerto Rico where the median is 61.20 years. Closely followed by ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ทRepublic of Korea with a median age of 61.13 years, and ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑAlbania with 59.98.

The country with the lowest median age for the year is projected to be ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ชNiger where the median is 26.38 years. Followed by ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉChad with a median age of 28.12, and ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉDemocratic Republic of the Congo with 28.35 years.

The geographic region with the highest median age is projected to be Europe with a median of 48.70 years. Closely followed by Latin America and the Caribbean with a median age of 47.59 years, and Northern America with 46.70 years of median age.

When devided into sub-subregions we can see that Eastern Asia had the highest median age of 56.32 years. Closely followed by Southern Europe with a median age of 53.51 years, and Western Europe with 49.22 years of median age.

If we devide the global population into income groups we can see that Upper-middle-income countries has the highest median age of 50.05 years. While the lowest median age is recorded by Low-income countries with a median age of only 31.49.

Countries with the Highest Median Age in 2085

Rank Country Median Age (Years)
1 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ทPuerto Rico 61.1991
2 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ทRepublic of Korea 61.1279
3 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฑAlbania 59.9763
4 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฑSaint Barthรฉlemy 59.7509
5 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐChina, Hong Kong SAR 59.1418
6 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณChina 56.7875
7 ๐Ÿ‡ฝ๐Ÿ‡ฐKosovo (under UNSC res. 1244) 55.7543
8 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ฒJamaica 55.7215
9 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡นMalta 55.2381
10 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ญThailand 54.8
11 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฆHoly See 54.0282
12 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ตJapan 53.9853
13 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธSpain 53.9686
14 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ผChina, Taiwan Province of China 53.8588
15 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฉAndorra 53.8059
16 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡นItaly 53.6993
17 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฌSingapore 53.5881
18 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฎAnguilla 53.5151
19 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ผAruba 53.3542
20 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ทGreece 52.7981
21 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฒBermuda 52.6507
22 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ทCroatia 52.5926
23 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฐNorth Macedonia 52.5736
24 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฆBosnia and Herzegovina 52.5025
25 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฝSint Maarten (Dutch part) 52.4921
26 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ธSerbia 52.3159
27 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ทCosta Rica 52.2612
28 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฒSan Marino 52.1507
29 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ซFrench Polynesia 52.0602
30 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡บCuba 51.9709
31 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฑChile 51.9523
32 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡นPortugal 51.9414
33 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฌBulgaria 51.8005
34 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡พUruguay 51.5787
35 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฎGibraltar 51.4127
36 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฑPoland 51.4068
37 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฌGuernsey 51.2649
38 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ปMaldives 51.1713
39 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒArmenia 51.0634
40 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฐFalkland Islands (Malvinas) 51.0222
41 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฌAntigua and Barbuda 51.0144
42 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฌBritish Virgin Islands 50.9656
43 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡จSaint Lucia 50.6135
44 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡บMauritius 50.5902
45 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ถMartinique 50.5765
46 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡นBhutan 50.5758
47 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ธMontserrat 50.3888
48 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฒDominica 50.295
49 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฎLiechtenstein 50.2557
50 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ธAmerican Samoa 50.1939
51 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ปEl Salvador 50.1839
52 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ดColombia 50.056
53 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎFinland 50.0538
54 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡พCyprus 49.9372
55 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡นAustria 49.8899
56 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฝMexico 49.888
57 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฆUkraine 49.7961
58 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ชGermany 49.6363
59 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ธIceland 49.586
60 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ชMontenegro 49.5133
61 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ทBrazil 49.4091
62 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฐSlovakia 49.2571
63 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ฎUnited States Virgin Islands 49.1652
64 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡งBarbados 49.106
65 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ทFrance 49.0664
66 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ชEstonia 49.047
67 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฐSri Lanka 49.027
68 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฎSlovenia 48.896
69 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ดChina, Macao SAR 48.8805
70 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑNetherlands 48.8595
71 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฒSaint Pierre and Miquelon 48.7891
72 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡นTrinidad and Tobago 48.728
73 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ทIran (Islamic Republic of) 48.5758
74 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ชBelgium 48.4211
75 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ทTรผrkiye 48.4202
76 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญSwitzerland 48.4166
77 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟNew Zealand 48.4002
78 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ปLatvia 48.2935
79 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡งUnited Kingdom 48.2518
80 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บHungary 48.1597
81 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡นLithuania 48.0762
82 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฒIsle of Man 48.0587
83 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บLuxembourg 48.0227
84 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ตGuadeloupe 48.0078
85 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ปCabo Verde 47.8636
86 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆCanada 47.8232
87 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ผCuraรงao 47.7919
88 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ดNorway 47.7397
89 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฟAzerbaijan 47.71
90 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ดRomania 47.6935
91 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡จSaint Vincent and the Grenadines 47.5837
92 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฉBangladesh 47.5407
93 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ชIreland 47.5003
94 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ญSaint Helena 47.4156
95 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ธBahamas 47.3591
96 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ชSweden 47.3472
97 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ชJersey 47.2167
98 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ตNorthern Mariana Islands 47.2084
99 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บAustralia 47.1741
100 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ทArgentina 47.1728
101 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ณBrunei Darussalam 47.1505
102 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ณSaint Kitts and Nevis 47.0988
103 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡จEcuador 47.0781
104 ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ซWallis and Futuna Islands 46.9531
105 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡พMalaysia 46.8773
106 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ตDem. People's Republic of Korea 46.6962
107 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฐDenmark 46.6217
108 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡จNew Caledonia 46.591
109 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡พBelarus 46.5724
110 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธUnited States of America 46.5511
111 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ผKuwait 46.4694
112 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡พCayman Islands 46.4141
113 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ชRรฉunion 46.1692
114 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ถBonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba 45.8924
115 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณIndia 45.8103
116 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ณViet Nam 45.7715
117 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ณTunisia 45.7032
118 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฉGrenada 45.5463
119 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡งLebanon 45.495
120 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ชPeru 45.4749
121 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ชGeorgia 45.447
122 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฟBelize 45.3667
123 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡จTurks and Caicos Islands 45.2758
124 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ดDominican Republic 45.1826
125 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ตNepal 45.1209
126 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฆSaudi Arabia 44.9637
127 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡จMonaco 44.7736
128 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฆMorocco 44.7671
129 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฆPanama 44.6661
130 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฑGreenland 44.6598
131 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บRussian Federation 44.5108
132 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡บGuam 44.399
133 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฐCook Islands 44.2145
134 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฎNicaragua 44.1918
135 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ซSaint Martin (French part) 44.0816
136 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡ชVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 43.9548
137 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡พLibya 43.7381
138 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡นGuatemala 43.692
139 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡จSeychelles 43.4446
140 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡พGuyana 43.3385
141 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟCzechia 43.3361
142 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฉRepublic of Moldova 43.0106
143 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ณHonduras 42.778
144 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฟAlgeria 42.675
145 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฉIndonesia 42.454
146 ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ดJordan 42.4111
147 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฒMicronesia (Fed. States of) 42.408
148 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ญCambodia 42.3659
149 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ญWestern Sahara 42.2772
150 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡พParaguay 41.9516
151 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ฆLao People's Democratic Republic 41.8549
152 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡พSyrian Arab Republic 41.7714
153 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฒMyanmar 41.7224
154 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ทSuriname 41.7207
155 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ดFaroe Islands 41.5678
156 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฑTimor-Leste 41.1372
157 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฐTokelau 41.0838
158 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ณMongolia 40.9809
159 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡บNiue 40.3951
160 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑIsrael 39.7104
161 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ญPhilippines 39.6928
162 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฒTurkmenistan 39.3417
163 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ผPalau 39.3367
164 ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฏFiji 39.145
165 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ดBolivia (Plurinational State of) 39.1283
166 ๐Ÿ‡ด๐Ÿ‡ฒOman 39.0665
167 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฟUzbekistan 39.0207
168 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฆSouth Africa 38.8494
169 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ญBahrain 38.4058
170 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ญMarshall Islands 38.3993
171 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ฌEgypt 38.2004
172 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ธState of Palestine 38.1325
173 ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ฏDjibouti 38.132
174 ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡นHaiti 37.5161
175 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ผBotswana 37.3799
176 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฌKyrgyzstan 37.1812
177 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ดTonga 36.2799
178 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฟEswatini 36.0872
179 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฟKazakhstan 36.0216
180 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ซFrench Guiana 35.9752
181 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฏTajikistan 35.9047
182 ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡ชYemen 35.8251
183 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ทEritrea 35.6524
184 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฌPapua New Guinea 35.5527
185 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ชUnited Arab Emirates 35.5425
186 ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡ฐPakistan 35.3992
187 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฒComoros 35.2858
188 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฑSierra Leone 35.1182
189 ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ถIraq 35.0302
190 ๐Ÿ‡ถ๐Ÿ‡ฆQatar 35.0133
191 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ชKenya 34.8682
192 ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡นEthiopia 34.8469
193 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ถEquatorial Guinea 34.6348
194 ๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ฎKiribati 34.5428
195 ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ผRwanda 34.2246
196 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฆGabon 34.2126
197 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ฒGambia 33.9541
198 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ญGhana 33.7915
199 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฆNamibia 33.7212
200 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ธLesotho 33.6476
201 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ซAfghanistan 33.5802
202 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ผGuinea-Bissau 33.2557
203 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ธSouth Sudan 33.1572
204 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ผZimbabwe 33.145
205 ๐Ÿ‡ผ๐Ÿ‡ธSamoa 33.1171
206 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ปTuvalu 33.1099
207 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฌMadagascar 32.9406
208 ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ฌUganda 32.938
209 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡นSao Tome and Principe 32.8036
210 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ผMalawi 32.7893
211 ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ณGuinea 32.7393
212 ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡ทLiberia 32.2921
213 ๐Ÿ‡ป๐Ÿ‡บVanuatu 32.2351
214 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ทMauritania 32.0427
215 ๐Ÿ‡พ๐Ÿ‡นMayotte 31.9197
216 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ซBurkina Faso 31.8432
217 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ทNauru 31.8231
218 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡งSolomon Islands 31.8075
219 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฎBurundi 31.6157
220 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฌNigeria 31.5544
221 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฟMozambique 31.5149
222 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ณSenegal 31.3349
223 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ฉSudan 30.9903
224 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฟUnited Republic of Tanzania 30.8575
225 ๐Ÿ‡ฟ๐Ÿ‡ฒZambia 30.5056
226 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฌCongo 30.3679
227 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ซCentral African Republic 30.316
228 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฒCameroon 30.0798
229 ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ดAngola 29.8938
230 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฌTogo 29.7125
231 ๐Ÿ‡ฒ๐Ÿ‡ฑMali 29.2009
232 ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ดSomalia 29.1806
233 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฎCรดte d'Ivoire 29.1476
234 ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ฏBenin 28.8123
235 ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฉDemocratic Republic of the Congo 28.3547
236 ๐Ÿ‡น๐Ÿ‡ฉChad 28.125
237 ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ชNiger 26.383

Regions with the Highest Median Age in 2085

Rank Region Median Age (years)
1 Europe 48.6989
2 Latin America and the Caribbean 47.5923
3 Northern America 46.7009
4 Asia 45.3117
5 Oceania 42.761
6 Africa 32.0295

Sub-regions with the Highest Median Age in 2085

Rank Sub-region Median Age (years)
1 Eastern Asia 56.3164
2 Southern Europe 53.5099
3 Western Europe 49.219
4 Northern Europe 48.0613
5 Central America 48.0516
6 South America 47.7112
7 Australia/New Zealand 47.3469
8 Eastern Europe 46.3649
9 Caribbean 44.251
10 Southern Asia 43.3311
11 South-Eastern Asia 43.1355
12 Western Asia 40.3383
13 Polynesia 39.8901
14 Micronesia 39.6801
15 Southern Africa 38.2489
16 Central Asia 37.5976
17 Northern Africa 37.5628
18 Melanesia 35.4387
19 Eastern Africa 32.8101
20 Western Africa 30.6696
21 Middle Africa 28.9619

Income Groups with the Highest Median Age in 2085

Rank Income Group Median Age (years)
1 Upper-middle-income countries 50.045
2 High-income countries 48.3647
3 No income group available 43.9094
4 Middle-income countries 42.3157
5 Lower-middle-income countries 39.4386
6 Low-income countries 31.4934

Data Information

Data found on this page is based on the medium fertility variant of the United Nations Revision of World Population Prospects 2022.

Data Sources

The United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Population Division)

UN Revision of World Population Prospects 2022

Data Disclaimer

People at database.earth has not verified data entry and collection processes in person. We take all open data provided by governmental and non-governmental organization at face value.

This data is the foundation for most content and visualization found on this page. If you find errors in the representation of the data, please contact us and we will correct it.

All data from sources are archived for future reference.